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PDF version 铅,衰老和死亡

GLASS 代表全球铅劝告和支援的服务机构
GLASS 提供资料和推荐关于铅中毒和铅污染的预防和处理,
目地是要全球性的根除铅中毒和保护环境免受铅的影响。
GLASS由前小组公司管理。
ABN 号码是25819463114, 文章编号

[LID 9507]

Updated 01 May 2014

 Lead, Ageing and Death

铅,衰老和死亡

By Ewan MacAulay McDonnell, The LEAD Group Inc
由伊凡 麦考雷 麦当劳 编写,铅小组公司

Translated into Chinese by Hugh Xin Xi Zhu, Physician
由修.心禧.朱医师翻译成中文

当老年人死亡时,谁曾问过这个问题-?/span>是铅杀死了这个人吗??/font>

随着年老,你更容易患上心脏病,心脏病发作,中风,肾脏问题,阿尔茨海墨氏病或震颤。 但是,你可能认识不到这些症状是与你体内含有铅相关的。

现在与过去相比,因为很多人都含有更高的血铅水平,所以我们把衰老和铅中毒的许多作用联系在一起其实并不奇怪。特别是不良的记忆力和听力,摔交(由于失去平衡),精虫数目减少,性欲减退,中风,心脏病突发(由高血压引起的),蛀牙及阿尔次海墨氏病。公正地说,所有这些铅作用加起来可以合理地描述我们所认为的?/font>正常?/font>衰老。当然,我们测量有这些症状的老人的血铅浓度的时间是在折扣他们的症状仅是?/font>自然变老的部分?/font>之前。

伴随着铅接触,铅量在你的体内不断堆积。这种堆积是没有安全水平的。而且,随着资料的完善以及进一步的研究,安全铅水平的阈值几十年来已经逐渐地有所降低。美国国家疾病控制和预防中心(CDC)当前所列的阈值是<10微克/分升,然而,更近的研究显示即使当铅水平低至2.5微克/分升时,仍会对身体健康产生损害,而且其损害更甚于10-20微克/份升或20-30微克/分升的铅水平。

根据近期《内科档案》中的一篇文章,?/font>血铅和贯穿生命的铅接触同提高了的老年人死亡率已经被联系在了一起?/font>。在调整了潜在的混乱因素后,与那些血铅水平低于10微克/分升(<0.5微克分子/升)的人相比,血铅浓度达到20-29微克/分升(1.0-1.4微克分子/升) [比疾病控制和预防中心所制定的低于10微克/分升的这一目标高出了23倍,但仍远低于铅浓度50微克/分升,这项用以强制澳大利亚工人撤离铅接触工作环境的标准] 这一基线的个人,其死亡率增加了46%(由所有原因引起的);由循环系统引起的死亡率提高了39%;由癌症引起的死亡率增加了68%

实际上,根据美国国家疾病控制和预防中心的一项研究,2微克/分升的血铅水平就已与较高的心血管发病率有关。3.63微克/分升或更高的血铅水平会将心脏病发作引起的死亡率提高89%;将中风发作率提高250%。血铅水平高于10微克/分升的成年人中发现有较高的动脉硬化患病率。

当铅开始在骨内沉积,骨头起到了?/font>蓄水池?/font>的作用。 从那里, 血铅对血红素合成,维生素D代谢,肾脏功能起到了第二轮的负面影响。 首先,铅是一种神经毒素, 它能引起与阿尔茨海墨氏病相似的症状。由于病因相同,所以与该病有关。如果从儿童时期起就有铅接触,基因表达会在你今后的生活中造成其他的健康问题,其中包括脑部蛋白质堆积,其形式与阿尔海墨氏病引起的相似。累积的铅接触也与老年人较低的学习,记忆,视觉及运动能力有关。另外,压力能够加剧这种负面影响。不佳的学习表现可能是儿童早期的铅接触导致的,也可能是铅在包裹脑内神经元的髓磷脂鞘中堆积,从而引发的神经变性疾病。最近的一项研究显示,患者平均的血铅水平为3.5微克/分升,胫骨铅水平为18.7微克/分升。而较高的胫骨铅水平和不良的认知功能是密切相关的。

另一种可能与铅有关的神经性疾病是原发性震颤(ET)。原发性震颤是一种不可治愈的,与衰老相关的疾病,其症状涉及到手和头部的震颤。目前,它的成因仍不为人知。用于实验的动物和接触了高铅环境的人已经表现有相似的症状。原发性震颤患者的血铅水平已发现高于其对照组。原发性震颤在年龄大于60岁的实验者中是一种很常见的神经性疾病,其比例可高达20.5%

铅加速着大脑的老化,而当你衰老时,骨头不断地脱去矿质,这意味着它们把铅释放回血流当中。那么,在你年轻时发生的铅接触(例如处理含有铅成分的油漆或汽油之类的工业工作)所产生的毒性作用,将综合你现在正经受着的铅接触,累加起来对你的身体健康造成危害。一生中已经在工作场所或家中有铅接触的成年人更容易患上与铅相关的疾病,如心血管病,高血压,中风,肾功能衰竭及骨质疏松。

一些涉及到早年铅接触的经绝期妇女也接受了测试。结果显示,贯穿生命的铅接触可导致绝经期的高血铅。有些研究还发现激素替代疗法(HRT)有抑制血铅浓度的作用。使用激素替代疗法的妇女比较经绝期没有使用激素替代疗法的妇女有更低的血铅浓度。

 有一份专题报告书对各类人群,包括?/font>儿童?/font>?/font>产前发育和生殖健康的作用?/font>?/font>成人?/font>的铅中毒做了全面的描述。列在不同组的这些人涉及到多种铅中毒,包括神经系统,周围神经系统,成长和发育,认知的发育,行为,听觉,视觉,运动和肌肉,消化系统,胎儿,肾脏,心脏血管及血液循环,智力和脑力,感觉,骨骼,肌肉和关节,还有死亡。另外,这个报告书还列出了从动物实验中得出的各种铅作用(参见网页  www.lead.org.au/fs/fst7.html )。

Sources Cited:

  1. McKinney, Merritt, "Lead Exposure Speeds Up Brain Aging" Accessed (2011/04/04) [LID: 4836] http://www.thisisms.com/article-print-60.html

  2. Schwartz, BS; Stewart, WF; Bolla, KI; Simon, D; Bandeen-Roche, K; Gordon, B; Links, JM; & Todd, AC, "Past adult lead exposure is associated with longitudinal decline in cognitive function" NEUROLOGY 55: 1144ˇV1150 October (2 of 2) 2000: Accessed (2011/04/04) [LID: 4838] www.nmic.org/nyccelp/medical-studies/neurology - schwartz .PDF

  3. CNN.com - 4/5/00, "Lead Exposure, Inactivity Linked To Alzheimers" Accessed (2011/04/04) [LID: 4058] www.grayenvironmental.com/lead exposure and alzheimers.htm www.cnn.com/2000/HEALTH/05/04/alzheimers.lead.reut/index.html

  4. Silbergeld, Ellen K, "Menopause And Lead: Consequences And Determinants Of Bone Lead Mobilization - From Womenˇ¦s Environments & Womenˇ¦s Health Conference Friday, October 22, 1999" [LID: 5975] 

  5. Chicago Tribune, 20021227, Kotulak, Ronald , "Study links early adult deaths to lead - 30 million in U.S. could be at risk" Accessed (2011/04/04) [LID: 6915] http://inchesnetwork.net/updates_jan03_36.htm

  6. Hu, Howard; Aro, Antonio; Payton, Marinelle; Korrick, Susan; Sparrow, David; Weiss, S & Rotnitzky A, "The Relationship Of Bone And Blood Lead To Hypertension - The Normative Aging Study [ABSTRACT]" Accessed (2011/04/04) [LID: 7052] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8609684?dopt=Abstract

  7. Kim, Rokho; Rotnitzky, Andrea; Sparrow, David; Weiss, Scott; Wager, Carrie & Hu, Howard, "A Longitudinal Study Of Low-Level Lead Exposure And Impairment Of Renal Function - The Normative Aging Study [ABSTRACT]" Accessed (2011/04/04) [LID: 7051] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8609685?dopt=Abstract; http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/275/15/1177.full.pdf+html

  8. Hu, Howard, "Harvard University Superfund Basic Research Program - School of Public Health - Project 4 -- Lead Exposure, Accumulation in Bone, and Cognitive Toxicity among Elderly Men and Women" Accessed (2011/04/04) [LID: 7053]  http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/content/160/12/1184.full; http://www.ehjournal.net/content/8/1/15 

  9. Lead Reference Centre (LRC) - a now defunct part of NSW Environment Protection Authority (EPA), "How lead affects health" Accessed (2011/04/04) [LID: 7061] http://web.archive.org/web/20070831045920/www.epa.nsw.gov.au/leadsafe/health.htm

  10. Democrat & Chronicle, 25/2/02, Wentzel, Michael, "UR [University of Rochester] links childhood lead to osteoporosis" Accessed (2011/04/04) [LID: 6203] www.leadprevention.org/web/uploads/Lead & Osteroporsis.doc

  11. Vella, Vance; Oˇ¦Brien, Elizabeth & others, "Health Impacts of Lead Poisoning - A preliminary listing of the health effects & symptoms of lead poisoning" [LID: 1452] www.lead.org.au/fs/fst7.html

  12. American Academy of Neurology, " Lead Exposure May Increase Risk for Alzheimerˇ¦s Accessed (2011/04/04) [LID: 5054] http://www.prohealth.com/library/showarticle.cfm?id=1376&t=Alzheimers

  13. Balzer, Dr Ben, "Lead Poisoning - [PowerPoint Presentation]" [LID: 4598] www.lead.org.au/BBLP.ppt

  14. Lustberg, M; Silbergeld, E, "Blood Lead Levels And Mortality. [ABSTRACT]" Source: Arch Intern Med 2002 Nov 25;162(21):2443-9 [LID: 6918] Accessed (2011/04/04) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12437403?dopt=Abstract  http://archinte.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/162/21/2443

  15. Hitti, M, Reviewed by Louise Chang, MD "Lead in Blood: Safe levels too high?", Reviewed (2006/09/18) WebMD Medical News [LID:8614] Accessed (2011/04/04) www.webmd.com/news/20060918/lead-in-blood-safe-levels-too-high

  16. Schrager, Thomas F. "Is the Center for Disease Control's goal to reduce lead below 10ug/dl blood in all children younger than 72 months by 2010, good enough?" (2006) Cambridge Toxicology Inc [LID: 8777] Accessed (2011/04/04) http://www.toxicologysource.com/tox-med/lead/braininjury.html

  17. Louis E.D. et al ˇ§Association between Essential Tremor and Blood Lead Concentration" Environmental Health Perspectives,  Vol 111, No. 14, (2003/11) [LID: 8789] Accessed (2011/04/04) http://ehp03.niehs.nih.gov/article/fetchArticle.action?articleURI=info:doi/10.1289/ehp.6404

  18. Navas-Acien, A. "Lead, Cadmium, Smoking, and Increased Risk of Peripheral Arterial Disease", Circulation Online American Heart Association (AHA) Inc. Issue 109 (2004/06/07). [LID: 7392] Accessed (2011/04/04) http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/109/25/3196

  19. Osterweil, N. ˇ§Lifetime lead exposure dulls thinking in older adultsˇ¨ MedPage Today (2006/09/14) Reviewed by  Zalman, S.[LID: 8681] Accessed (2011/04/04) http://www.medpagetoday.com/Neurology/AlzheimersDisease/4106

  20. Stokstad, E. ˇ§Getting the Lead Inˇ¨. Submitted by Gagnon, M. Learning and Developmental Disabilities Initiative (LDDI) AAMR Weekly Bulletin (2011/04/04) [LID: 8288] Accessed (2006/03/27) http://www.iceh.org/bulletins/LDDIbulletin3-14-06.html#art10

  21. http://news.sciencemag.org/sciencenow/2006/03/07-02.html

  22. Shih, R. A. et al ˇ§Environmental lead exposure and cognitive function in community-dwelling older adultsˇ¨ Neurology (13/09/2006) [LID: 8682] Accessed (2011/04/04) http://www.neurology.org/cgi/content/abstract/01.wnl.0000239836.26142.c5v1

PDF version 铅,衰老和死亡
English
Lead, Ageing and Death PDF version Lead, Ageing and Death  

The LEAD Group Inc. Fact Sheet Index

NSW Lead Reference Centre and NSW Government Publications On this site

  1. About the Global Lead Advice and Support Service (GLASS)

  2. Main Sources of Lead

  3. How Would You Know If You or Your Child Was lead poisoned?

  4. Lead aware housekeeping

  5. Ceiling dust & lead poisoning

  6. Is your yard lead safe?
    你的院子是铅安全的吗

  7. Health Impacts of lead poisoning

  8. Rotary Questionnaire

  9. Lead poisoned Pets and Your Family

  10. Childhood Lead Poisoning Risk Factor Questionnaire

  11. Is Your Child Safe From Lead? - What Can You Do About Lead?

  12. Lead in Drinking Water in Australia

  13. Have We Really Resolved The Lead Issue?

  14. The Importance of the Availability of "Spot Tests" for Lead in Paint

  15. Pregnant or Planning a Pregnancy

  16. Breastfeeding and Lead

  17. Lead in breast milk

  18. Beware The Lead In Lead Lighting

  19. Renting and Lead

  20. What to do if you have too much lead in your tank water

  21. Lead Contamination in Stormwater

  22. Contamination At Shooting Ranges

  23. Banned: Leaded Wick Candles

  24. Lead, Ageing and Death
    铅,衰老和死亡

  25. Metal miniatures: How to minimise the risks of lead poisoning and contamination

  26. 7 Point Plan for the MANAGEMENT OF LEAD by Australian parents and carers

  27. Countries where Leaded Petrol is Possibly Still Sold for Road Use, As at 17th June 2011

  28. Lead Poisoning And The Brain - Cognitive Deficits And Mental Illness

  29. Facts and Firsts of Lead

  30. Lead mining royalties by state and territory

  31. Lead Mining Stewardship - Grey Lead and the Role of The LEAD Group

  32. Preventative Strategies of The LEAD Group

  33. What do Doctors need to do about Lead?

  34. A Naturopath's Experience Of Lead & People With Diagnosed Mental Illness

  35. Case File: Helping Manage Australian Lead in Petrol - How GLASS Works

  36. Glass Web & Service-Users, Experts & Volunteers, by Country; Countries with Leaded Petrol for Road Use & Worst Pollution

  37. Lead in ceiling dust

  38. Lead paint & ceiling dust management - how to do it lead-safely

  39. Esperance parliamentary inquiry follow-up factsheet: Where to from Here??
    埃斯佩兰斯议会调查后续情况说明书:从这里去哪里??

  40. Broken Hill lead miners factsheet 1893 with Note 20081015

  41. Helping a Doctor Help 35,000 Lead-Poisoned People Around the Lead Smelter at La Oroya in Peru
    Ayuda a un doctor que ayuda 35,000 personas envenenadas por plomo alrededor de la fundidora de plomo en la Oroya-Peru
    案例档案:帮助一个医生救助在秘鲁的拉奥罗亚的铅冶炼厂周围的35000铅中毒的人民ˇX全球铅咨询和支持的服务机构是怎末工作的

  42. Fact sheet for Australian toy importers and traders

  43. Iron Nutrition & Lead Toxicity
    Informe de Acciones ˇV Hierro y Plomo en la Nutrición
    情况说明书ˇX铁的营养和铅的毒性

  44. Sanitarium-Are You getting Enough Iron

  45. Do-It-Yourself-Lead-Safe-Test-Kits-flyer

  46. Blood lead testing: who to test, when, and how to respond to the result

  47. Dangers of a blood lead level above 2 µg/dL and below 10 µg/dL to both adults and children
    血铅水平高于
    2微克/分升和低于10微克/分升对予成人和儿童的危险。

  48. Lead Exposure & Alzheimerˇ¦s Disease: Is There A Link?

  49. In CHINA - Blood lead testing: who to test, when, and how to respond to the result
    在中国血铅测试:谁应该去检查,什么时候,如何对待不同的测试结果

  50. Why you should have your ceiling dust removed before you take advantage of the Australian government's Energy Efficient Homes Package: Insulation Program

  51. Alperstein et al Lead Alert - A Guide For Health Professionals 1994

  52. Ceiling Dust WorkCover Guide Lee Schreiber Final Nov 1999

  53. What can I do about climate change AND lead?

  54. The Need for Expert Clinical Assessments in Diagnosis Of Heavy Metal Poisoning

  55. Why you should have your ceiling dust removed before you have insulation installed

  56. Thirty Thought-Starters on Ceiling Void Dust in Homes

  57. Pectin: Panacea for both lead poisoning and lead contamination

  58. Nutrients that reduce lead poisoning June 2010

  59. Lead poisoning and menopause

  60. Fact sheet For Schoolkids From Professor Knowlead About Lead

  61. Prevention of Exposure to Lead at Work in Indonesia

  62. Mencegah kontak dengan timbal di tempat kerja di Indonesia

  63. How to Protect Your Family from Lead in Indonesia

  64. Bagaimana melindungi keluargamu dari timbal di Indonesia

  65. Cigarette Smoking & Lead Toxicity
     صحيفة معلومات: التدخين والتسمم بالرصاص

  66. Medical Evaluation Questionnaire For Occupational Lead Exposure

  67. Dangers of a blood lead level above 2 µg/dL and below 10 µg/dL to children

  68. Dangers of a blood lead level above 2 µg/dL and below 10 µg/dL to adults

  69. Biosolids used as fertilizer in China and other countries
    在中国和其他国家生物固体作肥料

  70. What are the lead poisoning risks of a lead pellet, bullet or shot lodged in the body?

  71. Alcoholˇ¦s link to higher lead and iron levels

  72. USA Case Definition of Adult (including Occupational) & Child Elevated Blood Lead Levels (EBLL)

  73. Low Level Lead Exposure Harms Children - A Renewed Call for Primary Prevention

  74. Occupational Health & Safety Fact Sheet Dangers of lead for roofers

  75. Letˇ¦s Make Leaded Petrol History - Letˇ¦s Make Leaded Gasoline History

  76. Lead, Your Health & the Environment. Available in Arabic, Chinese, English, Korean, Macedonian, Spanish, Turkish and Vietnamese 

  77. Lead Safe Housekeeping

  78. Old Lead Paint

  79. Working safely with lead

  80. A Renovator's Guide To The Dangers Of Lead (Brochure 30 pages)

  81. A Guide For Health Care Professionals (Brochure 34 pages)

  82. A Guide To Keeping Your Family Safe From Lead (Brochure 20 pages)

  83. Lead Hazard Management In Children's Services (Brochure 15 pages)

  84. A Guide To Dealing With Soil That Might Be Lead-Contaminated

  85. Exposure Assessment: Lead Neurotoxicity - Is the Center for Disease Control's goal to reduce lead below 10 µg/dl blood in all children younger than 72 months by 2010, good enough?

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