|LEAD Action News vol 11 Number
4, June 2011, ISSN 1324-6011
Incorporating Lead Aware Times (ISSN 1440-4966) & Lead Advisory Service News (ISSN 1440-0561)
The journal of The LEAD (Lead Education and Abatement Design) Group Inc.
Editor: Anne Roberts
How the various factors relate to the continued use of leaded petrol
Transparency International (TI) analysed corruption in the public sector. It ‘defines corruption as the abuse of entrusted power for private gain.’
In 2006, of those countries for which data was available, Myanmar and Iraq were ranked equal 2nd-last worst, at 160. Algeria was at 84 and Yemen at 111 with 9 other countries. In 2010, Afghanistan and Myanmar were 2nd-last worst, at 176. Worst was Somalia. Please note that these numbers do not represent the ‘score’ given by TI, but how the countries rate in relation to each other.
In 2006, it could not be concluded with confidence that the practical difference in corruption levels between the leaded and unleaded countries was substantial.
‘From the [statistical] results, it could be confidently asserted that in 2006 the likelihood that a country would continue to be reliant on leaded vehicular fuels was related to its level of corruption, and that leaded countries were more likely to be corrupt than unleaded countries, although the practical impact of this increased tendency towards higher levels of corruption could not be described as substantial. While it was not possible … to definitively state that the relationship between high corruption levels and continuing use of leaded vehicular fuels was causative in nature, it is clear that a close relationship between the two existed. [Ed’s italics] These results provide some support for the conclusion that failures to address high levels of corruption in countries that continued to rely on leaded petrol may have been inhibiting the global effort to eliminate lead additives from vehicular fuels in 2006…
To put some meat on these bones, try the following:
The blog, ‘Rule of Lords,’ at www.ratchasima.net concentrates on Burma and Thailand, and has very many accounts of public corruption, especially for the Burmese judiciary. See also:
Asian Human Rights Commission, Hong Kong: www.humanrights.asia/countries (Under ‘countries’, see Afghanistan and Burma/Myanmar)
Cooper: ‘It is noted that Algeria is the only country among the leaded dataset which has committed to a phase out date (UNEP PCFV 2011: 7), and that with a score of 2.9, Algeria exhibited the lowest levels of corruption within the leaded dataset…
‘…it was possible to conclude with confidence that, as in 2006, a relationship existed between corruption values and the elimination or non-elimination of lead additives from vehicular fuels in 2010…the relationship between lower corruption values (indicating higher levels of corruption) and a failure to eliminate lead from vehicular fuels in 2010…did not emerge by chance…’
‘It can be confidently asserted that the likelihood that a country is leaded is related to its level of corruption, and that the relationship between corruption levels and the elimination of leaded petrol operated throughout the period 2006 to 2010. It is clear that leaded countries are substantially more likely to be corrupt than unleaded countries, and as time has progressed this trend has become even more pronounced. While … no definitive statement can be made as to whether the relationship between high levels of corruption and an increased tendency towards reliance on leaded fuels is causative in nature, the strength of the relationship provides considerable support for the proposition that failures to address high corruption levels in countries that continue to rely on leaded petrol may be inhibiting the global effort to eliminate lead additives from vehicular fuels. As the correlation between high corruption levels and reliance on leaded petrol became more pronounced in 2010 than it was in 2006, it can be asserted that the need to address the high levels of corruption present in leaded countries in order to further the global effort to eliminate lead additives from vehicular fuels was more compelling in 2010 than it was in 2006.’ [End of extracts from Cooper]
Democracy is not difficult to define, until you try. The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) has a long discussion on defining democracy, but these are the five areas they have chosen as essential: ‘Even if a consensus on precise definitions has proved elusive, most observers today would agree that, at a minimum, the fundamental features of a democracy include government based on majority rule and the consent of the governed, the existence of free and fair elections, the protection of minorities and respect for basic human rights. Democracy presupposes equality before the law, due process and political pluralism.’
The EIU asks, ‘Is reference to these basic features sufficient for a satisfactory concept of democracy?’
In 2010, out of 167 countries, Iraq was equal 111 with Haiti; Algeria was at 125, Afghanistan at 150, Myanmar at 163 and North Korea last at 167. Please note that these numbers do not represent the ‘score’ given by EIU, but how the countries rate in relation to each other.
system lead poisoning |
LEAD Project | egroups | Library
- Fact Sheets | Home
Page | Media Releases
Newsletters | Q & A | Referral lists | Reports | Site Map | Slide Shows - Films | Subscription | Useful Links | Search this Site
Updated 26 January 2012